Research

Research & Evidence

We have collected studies of therapeutic gardening into a Research Library which can be used to find evidence to support your therapeutic gardening work and funding applications.  As further research studies into the benefits of gardening come to our attention we will list them in the Research Library and highlight some of them on this page in the Research Digest. 

Research Digest

In July 2016, a visit to the Trellis office from Maxel Ng of the National Parks Board , Singapore and currently a member of the Visiting Staff at Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, brought us news of studies being carried out there, including The Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Asian Elderly’s Mental Health https://www.nparks.gov.sg/~/media/nparks-real-content/news/2016/launch-of-therapeutic-garden-at-hortpark/media-factsheet-b-research-programmes-on-benefits-of-greenery.pdf . So far the results are significantly positive - we’ll link to the full research paper, when it’s published. Singapore has adopted a strategic approach to therapeutic gardening, with direct government investment in gardening projects across the country, see the wealth of gardening and greenspace in Singapore’s culture at https://www.nparks.gov.sg/gardening

 

Gardening and well being

Therapeutic Gardening: theory and evidence
A summary of the main studies relevant to gardening therapy Word | pdf

Trellis Annual Conference 11th March 2016 : Dr Rachel Bragg, Development Coordinator, Care Farming UK, delivered an animated and enlightening overview of therapeutic gardening, its place within green care and evidence of how it supports health and wellbeing. To open the presentation please right click on the link and select 'open in new window' . This is the accompanying research paper.  

AIPH International Green City Conference: Growing Green & Healthy Places
Sir Richard Thompson KCVO, DM, President of the Royal College of Physicians in his conference paper  Why and How Green Environments are Better for Your Health   (please right click on the link and select  'open in new window') at the AIPH International Green City Conference,  1st April 2014

Gardens and health: Implications for policy and practice
A useful new publication, 2016,  making the case for increased use of gardening in health services, and rounding up some good research references about the health benefits of gardens and gardening. http://www.ngs.org.uk/Upload/What-we-do/News/King%27s%20Fund%20Report%20FINAL.pdf
 

Forward to Nature: Why a Walk in the Woods Could Calm ADHD, Make Your Family Happier and Deliver Your Kid to Harvard. Research shows getting kids in nature can increase intelligence, creativity, and well-being, as well as solving a host of other psychological and physical illnessess.
http://www.parentmap.com/article/a-walk-in-the-woods-calm-adhd-make-your-family-happier-and-deliver-your-kid-to-harvard

Longitudinal study of older people in Sweden highlighting the importance of non sport based physical activity in cardio vascular health.
The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity, Ekblom-Bak, E. et al.,Br J Sports Med: 28th October 2013
Abstract: http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/early/2013/10/08/bjsports-2012-092038

Green spaces deliver lasting mental health benefits. Analysing data that followed people over a five year period, the research has found that moving to a greener area not only improves people’s mental health, but that the effect continues long after they have moved. Article:.http://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/featurednews/title_349054_en.html

PubMed: Healing gardens and cognitive behavioral units in the management of Alzheimer's disease patients: the Nancy experience.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23207487
Healing gardens: recommendations and criteria for design.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23015232
What Is the Evidence to Support the Use of Therapeutic Gardens for the Elderly?.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372556/

 

Physical Activity and the Prevention of Depression: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies
George Mammen and  Guy Faulkner, PhD shows evidence that any level of physical activity including low levels (e.g., walking or  gardening  <150 minutes/weeks), can prevent future depression. From a population health perspective, promoting physical activity  may serve as a valuable mental health promotion strategy in reducing the risk of developing depression. Published in the
American Journal of Preventive Medicine Volume 45, Issue 5 , Pages 649-657, November 2013
Abstract: http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/PIIS0749379713004510/abstract

The Growing Healthy Older People in Wales (GHOP) research programme reveals that allotment and community gardening reduces stress, boosts self-esteem and enhances feelings of happiness and well-being, particularly for women see the report at
http://www3.uwic.ac.uk/English/health/research/psyr/HeaPsy/GHOP/Documents/Results%20Summary%20Document%20[web].pdf
 

ecotherapy benefits for mental health and wellbeing
Mind (the mental health support charity in England and Wales) recently released Feel Better Outside, Feel Better Inside - a report showing the many benefits of ecotherapy for mental wellbeing. Ecotherapy involves activities such as gardening, food growing and conservation work in natural environments. The report demonstrates that ecotherapy improves mental health, boosts self-esteem, helps people with mental health problems return to work, improves physical health and reduces social isolation. It also calculates the savings to the public purse from engaging people in ecotherapy activities.see report at www.mind.or.uk  
also see Mind's report Ecominds effects on mental wellbeing: an evaluation for mind at
http://www.mind.org.uk/media/354166/Ecominds-effects-on-mental-wellbeing-evaluation-report.pdf

Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their
neighbors without an allotment,  van den Berg et al. Environmental Health 2010, http://www.ehjournal.net/content/9/1/74
 

Di Blackmore PhD postgraduate student at the University of Stirling gives an update on her research into the health effects of therapeutic gardening.

The main application of the research will be to raise awareness and convince service managers, funders and policy makers in organisations such as national government, local authorities, health and environmental agencies, of the value delivered by such projects.
 

Green space and Health

Ground-breaking research into the impacts of greenspace, blue space and urban environments on individual and population health was reported at the GreenHealth conference in Edinburgh in March. The conference, organised by greenspace scotland on behalf of the GreenHealth research partnership heard from speakers including Prof George Morris, Prof Richard Mitchell of Glasgow University, Prof Catharine Ward Thompson of the OPENspace Research Centre and Prof David Miller of the James Hutton Institute. In the final session delegates proposed key recommendations for policy, practice and further research. The recommendations, together with the presentations are now available at greenspace scotland

 

Trellis Research Work

We aim to collate new research relevant to therapeutic gardening so that it's accessible to practitioners in one central place. We also work in partnership with researchers to encourage more studies that will help build the evidence base that demonstrates the benefits of therapeutic horticulture initiatives.

 


Latest Research

  • The Social and Economic Costs

    SAMH
    www.samh.org.uk
    www.samh.org.uk
  • Understanding the mechanism of physical activity…

    2011
    Elsevier www.elsevier.com/locate/psychsport
  • Benefits of a gardening project for people with dementia in nursing homes

    McClellan J
    2018
    Nursing Times [online]
    38-40

    Abstract:

    Gardening and garden-related activities can be a fun way of getting nursing home residents more physically active and engaged. For residents with dementia, they can provide opportunities to be involved, express themselves and interact with others. Gardening can also be a way of getting all members of the nursing home community involved in a common project. This article describes a gardening project undertaken at two nursing homes in Scotland, where it was found to have numerous benefits for all involved.

    Jeanette McClellan is a retired nurse helping to deliver on the Standards of Care for Dementia in Scotland in residential care settings.
Year Published by Where Abstract Link Pages Notes Pages
Van Den Berg AE, Custers MH Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress 2015 Epub 2010 Jun 3. Journal of Health Psychology Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-reported mood were repeatedly measured. Gardening and reading each led to decreases in cortisol during the recovery period, but decreases were significantly stronger in the gardening group. Positive mood was fully restored after gardening, but further deteriorated during reading. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that gardening can promote relief from acute stress. 3-11 3-11
Mick Marston Life near a city park can be as healthy as out in the country 2008 Federation of city farms and community gardens Newcastle upon Tyne
Miss S.A. Gibson Horticulture as a Therapeutic Medium 1996 Glasgow Caledonian University British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation
McClellan, J Benefits of a gardening project for people with dementia in nursing homes 2018 Nursing Times [online]; 114: 2, 38-40 https://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-archive/care-sector/benefits-of-a-gardening-project-for-people-with-dementia-in-nursing-homes/7022783.article
Nancy Gerlach-Spriggs, Richard Enoch Kaufman, Sam Bass Warner, Jr Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape 1998 Yale University Press https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=whmUs-VhdxsC&oi=fnd&pg=PP11&dq=Healy,+Vince.&ots=__AioyEfNp&sig=Vd8fUQvnzVIs7f_vmXn2bI8_A3I#v=onepage&q=Healy%2C%20Vince.&f=false
NHS National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Physical activity and the environment 2008 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence www.nice.org.uk
NHS Scotland Hospitals Health benefits of Greening the NHS Estate 2011 pdf file
Nina Morris Cultivating Urban Greenspace 2010 University of Edinburgh Report on symposium
Oliver 'The Politics of Disablement` Appendix 2 The Models of Disability 1990 also Reiser, R. & Mason, M 1992 Disabled People International 1981
Part II Structure of the lifestyle horticultural industry Horticultural Science Focus Chronica Horticulturae
Part III Well being benefits Horticultural Science Focus Chronica Horticulturae
Penny Wark A simple therapy that is down to earth yet uplifting 2008 The Times
Pretty J, Peacock J, Hine R, et al. Green Exercise in the UK 2007 www.btcvscotland.org/GG_Evaluation_Full.pdf www.greenexercise.org/Abstracts.html
Prof Les Firbank Carbon in the garden Internet l.firbank@leeds.ac.uk
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray Exploring the health effects of horticulture 2010 Word File
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray Research & Evidence Working Group info@trellisscotland.org.uk Word file by Trellis
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray Research & Evidence Event 2008 fiona@trellisscotland.org.uk Trellis
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray Minutes of Research and Evidence event 2008 info@trellisscotland.org.uk Trellis
R Jepson, R Robertson, L Doi Audit of exercise referral scheme activity in Scotland 2010 NHS Health Scotland University of Scotland
R Simpson Credits Small word file Stirling University
R Whear, J Thompson, A Bethel et al. What is the impact..for dementia 2014 Elsevier JAMDA
R Whear, R Garside Gardens crucial for dementia 2014 University of Exeter
Raymond Duncan Seeds of "garden scotland" should be sown 2006 Scottish Allotments and Gardens Society Third Force News
Roger S Ulrich Health Benefits of Gardens in Hospitals 2002 Texas A & M University http://chsd.arch.tamu.edu/ http://jarrettservices.com/resources/HealthBenefitsofGardensinHospitals.pdf
Roger S Ulrich, Marcus, M. Barnes Effects of gardens on health 1999 John Wiley & Sons Publishers Healing Gardens: Theraputic Benefits and Design Reccomendations
Roger S. Ulrich, Ph.D Health Benefits of Garden in Hospitals 2002 Texas A & M University Center for Health Systems and Design
Roger S. Ulrich, Ph.D View through a window may influence recovery from surgery 2009 American Association for the advancement of science
Roger S. Ulrich, Ph.D, Robert Simons, Barbara Losito Stress Recovery During exposure to natural and urban environments 1991 Academic Press Limited Texas A&M University
ruth.jepson@stir.ac.uk Public Health Research Form National Institute for Health Research PDF File
S. Shimmen, H. Biggs, S. Rawcliffe Food, mental health and wellbeing 2010 Scottish Development Centre for Mental Health www.sdcmh.org.uk
SAMH The Social and Economic Costs www.samh.org.uk www.samh.org.uk
Sara Malenbaum, Francis Keefe, Amanda Williams, Roger Ulrich, Tamara Somers Pain in its environmental context 2007 Elsevier B.V. International association for the study of pain
Scottish Arts Council Briefing, Arts and Health Scottish Arts Council www.scottisharts.org.uk
Scottish Government Mental health strategy for Scotland Respondent Information Form
Scottish Natural Heritage Health and the Natural Heritage 2009 SNH www.snh.gov.uk
Simon Bell; Val Hamilton; Alicia Montarzino; Helen Rothnie; Penny Travlou; Susana Alves Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review 2008 Greenspace Scotland Stirling
Sin-Ae Park, C Shoemaker, M Haub Physical and Psychological… 2009 HortScience journal
Sparcoll and BHF National Centre Five year review... 2009 NHS Scotland Executive Summary
Stephanie T. Broyles, PhD, Andrew J. Mowen et. Al Integrating Social Capital Into a Park-Use and Active living framework 2011 www.elsevier.com?
Stephen Adams Allotments really are good for your health 2010 Internet www.telegraph.co.uk
Stephen Adams Allotments really are good for your health 2010 www.telegraph.co.uk
Sustainable Development Commission Health, place and nature
Tim Spurgeon Therapeutic Horticulture - Growing for optimum well being 2001 Positive Health
Tina Bringslimark , Terry Hartig , Grete G. Patil The psychological benefits of indoor plants 2009 www.elsevier.com? Journal of Environmental Psychology
TJ Littlejohns, W Henley et al. Neurology 2014 American Academy of Neurology www.neurology.org
Trellis Flow diagram for research http://www.trellisscotland.org.uk/projects Internet
V. Lohr, C Pearson-Mims Physical discomfort may be reduced in the presence of interior plants 2000 Hortechnology International Human Issues in horticulture
Van den Berg Health impacts of healing environments 2005 Groningen University Hospital Groningen
Various Development of the profession excerpt from Horticulture as therapy People Plant Council
www.flowercouncil.org Pots of health Plants 4 life www.plants-for-people.org
www.greenspacescotland.org.uk Scottish Household Survey 2012 2013 Greenspace Scotland Internet
Understanding the mechanism of physical activity… 2011 Elsevier www.elsevier.com/locate/psychsport
Ekblom-Bak, E. et al. The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity 2013 Abstract: http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/early/2013/10/08/bjsports-2012-092038 British Journal of Sports Medecine Longitudinal study of older people in Sweden highlighting the importance of non sport based physical activity in cardio vascular health.
Mamen, G. Faulkener, G. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Depression: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Volume 45, Issue 5 , Pages 649-657 Abstract: Context Given its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, more research is needed in identifying factors that may prevent depression. This review examined whether physical activity (PA) is protective against the onset of depression. Evidence acquisition A comprehensive search was conducted up until December 2012 in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Data were analyzed between July 2012 and February 2013. Articles were chosen for the review if the study used a prospective-based, longitudinal design and examined relationships between PA and depression over at least two time intervals. A formal quality assessment for each study also was conducted independently by the two reviewers. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded a total of 6363 citations. After a thorough selection process, 30 studies were included for analyses. Among these, 25 studies demonstrated that baseline PA was negatively associated with a risk of subsequent depression. The majority of these studies were of high methodologic quality, providing consistent evidence that PA may prevent future depression. There is promising evidence that any level of PA, including low levels (e.g., walking <150 minutes/weeks), can prevent future depression. Conclusions From a population health perspective, promoting PA may serve as a valuable mental health promotion strategy in reducing the risk of developing depression
A E Van den Berg, HG Custers Gardening promotes neuroendocrine.. 2010 http://hpq.sagepub.com Journal of Health Psychology, June 2010
A S Poobalan, L S Aucott, A Clarke et al. Physical activity attitudes… 2012 BMC Public Health http://www.biomedcentral.com
A. van den Berg, M.van Winsum-Westra et al. Allotment Gardening and Health 2010 http://www.ehjournal.net Environmental Health
Adrian Lee How Happy Bug May Ease Depression 2007 Bristol University Bristol University
Alison Bowes , Alison Dawson et al. Physical activity for people with dementia 2013 BMC Geriatrics http://www.biomedcentral.com
Alison Ryan Why Horticulture? 1997 Growth Point, Horticultural Therapy, Somerset Growth Point, Spring 1997 Horticultural Therapy, Somerset
Ambra Burls, Woody Caan Human health and nature conservation 2005 www.bmj.com The British Medical Journal December 20015, Vol 31
Andea Thompson Got Nature? You need to get out 2009 LiveScience LiveScience April 2009
Mediaeval Quotation 2004 Ashgate 2004 Health, Sickness, Medicine and the Friars
Anita M Unruh Reflections on: "So What Do You Do?" Occupation and the Construction of Identity 2004 http://cjo.sagepub.com/content/71/5/290.short Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy , December 2004
Anita Unruh, Susan Hutchinson Embedded Spirituality: Gardening in Daily Life and Stressful life Experiences 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2010.00865.x/abstract Scandanavian Journal of Caring Sciences , January 2011
Anne Jepson Therapeutic Gardening Research & Evidence Event 2009 Trellis Trellis , February 2009
Aye Maung Therapeutic Horticulture, Wellbeing and quality of life www.carecommission.com
Ben Leach Going outside could help you lose weight 2009 The Telegraph University of Nottingham, August 2009
BHF National Centre Physical activity and Health 2007 BHFNC www.bhfactive.org.uk
BHF National Centre Physical Activity Patterns: Young People 2007 BHFNC www.bhfactive.org.uk
BHF National Centre Economic costs of physical inactivity 2007 BHFNC www.bhfactive.org.uk
Brigid Moss Grow your own fresh air 2010 Red Magazine Red Health March 2010
Bruce Whyte and Fiona Crawford et al. Nature and nurture, people and places 2014 Glasgow Centre for Population Health GCPH website
C Shoemaker Horticultural Therapy in Nursing Homes www.gardening4good.org www.ahta.org
C Spelman Wildlife Gardening Forum, January 2012 2012 http://www.defra.gov.uk
C.R. Hall, A.W. Hodges Part I Economic, Environmental, and well-being benefits of life style 2011 Horticultural Science Focus Chronica Horticulturae
Catherine Jackson Digging for sanity 1999 Mental Health Care vol 2. Apr-99
CC Marcus, M Barnes Gardens in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Theraputic Benefits and Design Reccomendations 1995 University of California Berkeley https://www.healthdesign.org/sites/default/files/Gardens%20in%20HC%20Facility%20Visits.pdf
Cecily Maller, Mardie Townsend, Anita Pryor Healthy nature healthy people 2005 Oxford University Press Deakin University, Australia, December 2005
Christopher Leck Early findings 2011 e-mail to NHS Lothian To: Ineson Antonia re: research
Clair Hickman Therapeutic gardens: an overview of the history of hospital gardens 2005 Bristol University Seminar: Cultural landscapes in the 21st century
Claire Carter Case Study: Wellesbourne Allotment 2010 carter.claire@btinternet.com Final pdf
Colette Bond Food Growing in Schools Report 2012 bgenlist-bounces@lists.kew.org BGENlist@lists.kew.org
Colin Stirling Horticulture Therapy 2011 4 pdf files c.stirling2@tiscali.co.uk
Cooke, Friedl Mental well-being checklist 2010 www.nmhdu.org.uk Internet
D. A. McLaughlin Social and Therapeutic Horticulture
DANNY DAY and BOB HAWKINS Getting Back to the Garden 2007 American Institute of Biological Sciences http://www.bioone.org
David A. McLaghlin Social and Therapeutic Horticulture Scottish Agricultural College
David Malakoff What good is community greening 2002 American Community Gardening Association www.communitygarden.org
Deborah Smith Horticultural therapy: The garden benefits everyone 2007 Internet Journal of Psychological Nursing and Mental Health Services
Deni Brown Herbal: The Essential Guide to Herbs for Living https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ukjHCQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT15&dq=Minter,+Sue.&ots=JbcXK9WhQs&sig=ePZJ6H7Oeh2fzizPU5BgofKB7iQ#v=onepage&q=Minter%2C%20Sue.&f=false
Di Blackmore Phd record of first meeting 2010 Stirling University Office of R Jepson
Di Blackmore Edinburgh symposium 2011 University of Edinburgh
Di Blackmore Record of meeting between PhD… 2011 Trellis Perth
Di Blackmore Exploring the health effects of horticulture and gardens on general and vulnerable populations 2011 PhD Progress Report
Diane Relf Horticulture a Therapeutic Tool Journal of Rehabilitation
Diane Relf and Sheri Dorn Horticulture: Meeting the needs of Special Populations 2002 Internet www.hort.vt.edu/human/HortTher11.html
Dianne Anderson Grow to Care 2009 The Horticulturist Askham Bryan College, York
Dr Joe Sempick Growing Together research progress report Growth Point Loughborough University
Dr M Kneafsey, P Turvil Food growing project a boost for health and a sense of community 2012 www.mastergardeners.org.uk Garden Organic
Dr. Jo Thompson-Coon, M. Deplege Outdoor exercise healthier than gym workouts 2011 Internet www.telegraph.co.uk
Dr. M Townsend, M Ebden Feel Blue Touch Green 2006 Deakin University
Dr. R Garside Gardens Crucial for dementia 2014 University of Exeter American Medical Directors Association
Dr. Rupert Hough Health risks and benefits associated with soil 2009 www.knowledgescotland.org
Dr. Russell Jones; Dr. Pete Seaman; Dr.Anne Ellaway; Ruth Kendall Facilities and Barriers to the use of Urban Greenspace 2008 Glasgow Center for Population Health Glasgow
Dr. William Bird Can greenspace and biodiversity increase levels of physical activity 2004 Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Emma Cowing Growing peace 2009 The Scotsman
Federation of City Funds and Community Gardens The true value of community farms and gardens 2008 www.farmgarden.org.uk Head Office, Bristol
Gaby Hinsliff Government seeks secret of keeping us all happy 2007 The Observer
george.morris@scotland.gsi.gov.uk New Directions for Environment and Health Chief Medical Office Scottish Executive
Giorgio Gianquinto 2009 Internet University of Bologna, Conference
Graham Hopkins Health blossoms in the garden 2003 The Risk Factor www.communitycare.co.uk
Greenspace Effects of greenspace on health and wellbeing: summary 2.7 2008 Greenspace Scotland Stirling
Greenspace Social and community values of greenspace: summary 3.8 2008 Greenspace Scotland Stirling
Gwen at Knoydart Powerdown project Carbon measures http://www.communitypowerdown.org.uk/local-food-production.asp www.frcn.org
H Frumkin Beyond Toxicity Human Health and the Natural Environment 2001 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Elsevier Science Inc
Hayley Young Gardening with Children and Young 2009 RHS www.rhs.org.uk/schoolgardening
Helen Puttick 1 in 10 taking drugs to fight depression 2009 The Herald Scotland
Hilary ‘A Lively Edge: People, Nature and Therapeutic Design’ 2007 St Michael’s College, Llandaff, Cardiff, CF5 2YJ www.cultivations.co.uk
Hilda Dooley A review of horticultural therapy provision in Edinburgh 2009 Horticulture with Plantsmanship References
Hilda Dooley A review of hortucultural therapy provision in Edinburgh 2009 The University of Glasgow The Scottish Agricultural College
Ian Benison Learning to succeed: horticultural projects for Mental Health www.westnotts.ac.uk West Nottinghamshire College
Ian Rickman Therapy - A Clients Perspective 1997 Thrive Trunkwell Garden Project Reading
Ingrid Soderback, Marianne Soderstrom, Elisabeth Schalader The healing garden in rehabilitation clinic, Sweden 2004 Pediatric Rehabilitation Danderyd Hospital Rehabilitation Clinic, Sweden
Internet AOL Lifesyle Dirt could help combat depression 2007 Internet
ioh@horticulture.org.uk No Plants No Planet www.horticulture.org.uk Word File
J Duncan, H Lewis, D Graham Spaces Conference Report 2012 Redhall Walled Garden, Edinburgh Web pdf.
J Maas , S.E.vanDillen et al. Social contacts as a possible mechanism 2008 Elsevier www.elsevier.com
J Mollison, J Wilkinson P Wright Recipe for Success Scotland National food and Drink Policy 2011 Grow Your Own Working Group
J. Pretty, M.Griffin, M. Peacock et.al Evidence of the links between nature and health 2005
Jacqueline Atkinson An evaluation of the gardening leave 2009 The Pears Foundation Glasgow University
Jane Elliott Growing better mental health 2009 Internet BBC News
Jane Stoneham Why is Horticulture a good medium for people who work with people with special needs 2004 Internet www.ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Jane_Stoneham/jmcd.htm
Jenny Fyall Hospital to create woodland haven to aid patient's recovery 2010 The Scotsman newspaper
Jepson, R Robertson, L Doi Audit of Exercise Referral 2010 NHS Scotland
Jessie Roberts Plenty for Everyone: 2013 RBGE and SRUC PDF File
jillm@thrive.org.uk Thirteen years of Thrive 2002 Growth Point Reading
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Ph.D Nonpharmacologic Interventions… American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Jo Barton and Jules Pretty What is the Best Dose of Nature and Green Exercise for Improving Mental Health 2010 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es903183r University of Essex
Jo Barton, Jules Pretty What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health 2010 American Chemical Society Centre for environment and society, University of Essex
Joe Sempik, Jo Aldridge and Louise Finnis (Thrive) Social and Therapeutic Horticulture: the state of practice in the UK 2004 Loughborough University - Centre for Child and Family Research
John Vidal More green investment 2009 The Guardian
Jolanda Mass; Robert A Verheij; Peter P Groenewegen; Sjerp de Vries; Peter Spreeuwenberg Green Space, urbanity and health:how strong is the relation? Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research
K. Croucher, L. Myers, J. Bretherton Appendix 2 References 2008 Greenspace Scotland Stirling
K. Yamane, M. Adachi Roles of Daily Horticultural Activities in Physical and Mental QOL for Elderly Adults 2008 International Society for Horticultural Science http://www.actahort.org/books/790/790_23.htm
K. Yamane, M. Kawashima, N. Fujishige, M. Yoshida Effects of Interior Horticultural Activities with Potted Plants on Human Physiological and Emotional Status 2004 International Society for Horticultural Science http://www.actahort.org/books/639/index.htm
K.C. Son, J.E. Song, S.J. Um, J.S. Lee, H.R. Kwack Effects of Visual Recognition of Green Plants on the Changes of EEG in Patients with Schizophrenia 2004 International Society for Horticultural Science http://www.actahort.org/books/639/index.htm
Ki-Cheol Son, Sin-Ae Park, Kwan-Suk Lee Determining Exercise Intensities of Gardening Tasks as a Physical Activity Using Metabolic Equivilents in Older Adults 2011 http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/ http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/46/12/1706.short
M Syrotinski, C Jones, J Middleton Healing places sick spaces: AHRC/SFC 2010 AHRC/SFC Post workshop discussion
M Taulbut, J Parkinson, et al. Scotland's Mental Health 2009 martin.taulbut@health.scot.nhs.uk www.scotpho.org.uk
Mark B. Detweiler, Taral Sharma, Joanna G. Detweiler et al. What is the evidence to support the use of Therapeutic Gardens for the elderley 2012 Internet Psychiatry Investigation
Mark Kinver Top doctorbacks `garden gym` idea 2014 BBC News BBC Science and Environment
Mathew Page Gardening as a therapeutic intervention in mental health 2008 Internet www.nursingtimes.net
Maureen Heffernan The Children's Garden Project at River Farm 1994 The Board of Regents of the University of Colorado, a body corporate, for the benefit of the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado Boulder http://www.jstor.org/stable/41515264
McClellan J Benefits of a gardening project for people with dementia in nursing homes 2018 Nursing Times [online] Gardening and garden-related activities can be a fun way of getting nursing home residents more physically active and engaged. For residents with dementia, they can provide opportunities to be involved, express themselves and interact with others. Gardening can also be a way of getting all members of the nursing home community involved in a common project. This article describes a gardening project undertaken at two nursing homes in Scotland, where it was found to have numerous benefits for all involved. 38-40 Jeanette McClellan is a retired nurse helping to deliver on the Standards of Care for Dementia in Scotland in residential care settings. 38-40