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Elisabeth Pilgrem, 2023, Social and Therapeutic Horticulture as a Palliative Care Intervention, BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care Journal: Online First,
Elizabeth R. Messer Diehl, 2017, ,
Prof Alistair Griffiths,, How to Make Your Garden Good for You, Dorling Kindersley
Marina De Rui, Elena Debora Toffanello, Nicola Veronese, Sabina Zambon, Francesco Bolzetta, Leonardo Sartori, Estella Musacchio, Maria Chiara Corti, Giovannella Baggio, Gaetano Crepaldi, Egle Perissinotto, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, 2014, Vitamin D Deficiency and Leisure Time Activities in the Elderly: Are All Pastimes the Same?, April 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 4 | e94805, PLOS ONE |
Graham Ambrosea,, Kirti Dasb,, Yingling Fanb,, Yingling Fanb,, 2020, Is gardening associated with greater happiness of urban residents? A multiactivity, dynamic assessment in the Twin-Cities region, USA, Volume 198, June 2020, 103776, Elsevier,
Professor Murphy, Dr Holmes, 2021, The Eating and Drinking Well with Dementia Toolkit, Bournemouth University,…
Michelle Howarth, Alison Brettle, Michael Hardman , Michelle Maden, 2020, What is the evidence for the impact of gardens and gardening on health and well-being: a scoping review and evidence-based logic model to guide healthcare strategy decision making on the use of gardening approaches as a social prescription, BMJ Open,
RIVASSEAU-JONVEAUX Thérese (et al) , 2012, Healing gardens: recommendations and criteria for design, vol.10, n°3, Sept.2012, Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement ,, 245-253
PRINGUEY Dominique, PRINGUEY-CRIOU France, 2015, The healing garden, therapeutic resource: Psychopathological and phenomenological aspects, therapeutic implications, vol.41, Issue 3, juin 2015, L’Encéphale,, 197-201
PRINGUEY-CRIOU France, 2015, Healing garden: Primary concept, Issue 5, oct. 2015, L’Encéphale 41,, 454-459
POMMIER Romain (et al.) , 2018, Approche qualitative de l’éprouvé au Jardin de Soins. Une étude exploratoire en Psychiatrie de l’Adulte, Vol.176 Issue 2, fevr 2018, Annales Médico-Psychologiques ,, 150-156
Sin-Ae Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Weon-Keun Cho, 2012, Practice of Horticultural Therapy in South Korea, Acta Horticulturae 954,, 954_24, 179-185
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Mick Marston, 2008, Life near a city park can be as healthy as out in the country, Newcastle upon Tyne, Federation of city farms and community gardens
Miss S.A. Gibson, 1996, Horticulture as a Therapeutic Medium, British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Glasgow Caledonian University
McClellan, J, 2018, Benefits of a gardening project for people with dementia in nursing homes, Nursing Times [online]; 114: 2, 38-40
Nancy Gerlach-Spriggs, Richard Enoch Kaufman, Sam Bass Warner, Jr, 1998, Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape,,+Vince.&ots=__AioyEfNp&sig=Vd8fUQvnzVIs7f_vmXn2bI8_A3I#v=onepage&q=Healy%2C%20Vince.&f=false, Yale University Press
NHS National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2008, Physical activity and the environment,, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
NHS Scotland Hospitals, 2011, Health benefits of Greening the NHS Estate, pdf file
Nina Morris, 2010, Cultivating Urban Greenspace, Report on symposium, University of Edinburgh
Oliver 'The Politics of Disablement`, 1990, Appendix 2 The Models of Disability , Disabled People International 1981, also Reiser, R. & Mason, M 1992
Part II, Structure of the lifestyle horticultural industry, Chronica Horticulturae, Horticultural Science Focus
Part III, Well being benefits, Chronica Horticulturae, Horticultural Science Focus
Penny Wark, 2008, A simple therapy that is down to earth yet uplifting, The Times
Pretty J, Peacock J, Hine R, et al., 2007, Green Exercise in the UK ,,
Prof Les Firbank, Carbon in the garden,, Internet
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray, 2010, Exploring the health effects of horticulture , Word File
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray, Research & Evidence Working Group, Word file by Trellis,
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray, 2008, Research & Evidence Event, Trellis,
R Jepson PhD, F Thackeray, 2008, Minutes of Research and Evidence event , Trellis,
R Jepson, R Robertson, L Doi, 2010, Audit of exercise referral scheme activity in Scotland, University of Scotland, NHS Health Scotland
R Simpson, Credits, Stirling University, Small word file
R Whear, J Thompson, A Bethel et al., 2014, What is the impact..for dementia, JAMDA, Elsevier
R Whear, R Garside, 2014, Gardens crucial for dementia, University of Exeter
Raymond Duncan, 2006, Seeds of "garden scotland" should be sown, Third Force News, Scottish Allotments and Gardens Society
Roger S Ulrich, 2002, Health Benefits of Gardens in Hospitals,, Texas A & M University
Roger S Ulrich, Marcus, M. Barnes, 1999, Effects of gardens on health, Healing Gardens: Theraputic Benefits and Design Reccomendations, John Wiley & Sons Publishers
Roger S. Ulrich, Ph.D, 2002, Health Benefits of Garden in Hospitals, Center for Health Systems and Design, Texas A & M University
Roger S. Ulrich, Ph.D, 2009, View through a window may influence recovery from surgery, American Association for the advancement of science
Roger S. Ulrich, Ph.D, Robert Simons, Barbara Losito, 1991, Stress Recovery During exposure to natural and urban environments, Texas A&M University, Academic Press Limited, Public Health Research Form, PDF File, National Institute for Health Research
S. Shimmen, H. Biggs, S. Rawcliffe , 2010, Food, mental health and wellbeing,, Scottish Development Centre for Mental Health
SAMH, The Social and Economic Costs,,
Sara Malenbaum, Francis Keefe, Amanda Williams, Roger Ulrich, Tamara Somers, 2007, Pain in its environmental context, International association for the study of pain, Elsevier B.V.
Scottish Arts Council, Briefing, Arts and Health,, Scottish Arts Council
Scottish Government, Mental health strategy for Scotland, Respondent Information Form
Scottish Natural Heritage , 2009, Health and the Natural Heritage,, SNH
Simon Bell; Val Hamilton; Alicia Montarzino; Helen Rothnie; Penny Travlou; Susana Alves , 2008, Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review, Stirling, Greenspace Scotland
Sin-Ae Park, C Shoemaker, M Haub, 2009, Physical and Psychological…, HortScience journal
Sparcoll and BHF National Centre, 2009, Five year review..., Executive Summary, NHS Scotland
Stephanie T. Broyles, PhD, Andrew J. Mowen et. Al, 2011, Integrating Social Capital Into a Park-Use and Active living framework,
Stephen Adams, 2010, Allotments really are good for your health,, Internet
Stephen Adams, 2010, Allotments really are good for your health,
Sustainable Development Commission, Health, place and nature
Tim Spurgeon, 2001, Therapeutic Horticulture - Growing for optimum well being, Positive Health
Tina Bringslimark , Terry Hartig , Grete G. Patil, 2009, The psychological benefits of indoor plants, Journal of Environmental Psychology,
TJ Littlejohns, W Henley et al., 2014, Neurology,, American Academy of Neurology
Trellis, Flow diagram for research, Internet,
V. Lohr, C Pearson-Mims, 2000, Physical discomfort may be reduced in the presence of interior plants, International Human Issues in horticulture, Hortechnology
Van den Berg, 2005, Health impacts of healing environments, Groningen, Groningen University Hospital
Various, Development of the profession, People Plant Council, excerpt from Horticulture as therapy, Pots of health,, Plants 4 life, 2013, Scottish Household Survey 2012, Internet, Greenspace Scotland
2011, Understanding the mechanism of physical activity…, Elsevier
Ekblom-Bak, E. et al., 2013, The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity, British Journal of Sports Medecine , Abstract:
Mamen, G. Faulkener, G. , 2013, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Depression: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies, American Journal of Preventive Medicine Volume 45, Issue 5 , Pages 649-657,
A E Van den Berg, HG Custers, 2010, Gardening promotes neuroendocrine.., Journal of Health Psychology, June 2010,
A S Poobalan, L S Aucott, A Clarke et al., 2012, Physical activity attitudes…,, BMC Public Health
A. van den Berg, M.van Winsum-Westra et al., 2010, Allotment Gardening and Health, Environmental Health,
Adrian Lee, 2007, How Happy Bug May Ease Depression, Bristol University, Bristol University
Alison Bowes , Alison Dawson et al., 2013, Physical activity for people with dementia,, BMC Geriatrics
Alison Ryan, 1997, Why Horticulture?, Growth Point, Spring 1997 Horticultural Therapy, Somerset, Growth Point, Horticultural Therapy, Somerset
Ambra Burls, Woody Caan, 2005, Human health and nature conservation , The British Medical Journal December 20015, Vol 31,
Andea Thompson, 2009, Got Nature? You need to get out, LiveScience April 2009, LiveScience
2004, Mediaeval Quotation, Health, Sickness, Medicine and the Friars, Ashgate 2004
Anita M Unruh, 2004, Reflections on: "So What Do You Do?" Occupation and the Construction of Identity, Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy , December 2004 ,
Anita Unruh, Susan Hutchinson, 2011, Embedded Spirituality: Gardening in Daily Life and Stressful life Experiences, Scandanavian Journal of Caring Sciences , January 2011,
Anne Jepson, 2009, Therapeutic Gardening Research & Evidence Event, Trellis , February 2009, Trellis
Aye Maung, Therapeutic Horticulture, Wellbeing and quality of life,
Ben Leach, 2009, Going outside could help you lose weight, University of Nottingham, August 2009, The Telegraph
BHF National Centre , 2007, Physical activity and Health,, BHFNC
BHF National Centre , 2007, Physical Activity Patterns: Young People,, BHFNC
BHF National Centre , 2007, Economic costs of physical inactivity,, BHFNC
Brigid Moss, 2010, Grow your own fresh air, Red Health March 2010, Red Magazine
Bruce Whyte and Fiona Crawford et al., 2014, Nature and nurture, people and places, GCPH website, Glasgow Centre for Population Health
C Shoemaker, Horticultural Therapy in Nursing Homes,,
C Spelman, 2012, Wildlife Gardening Forum, January 2012 ,
C.R. Hall, A.W. Hodges Part I, 2011, Economic, Environmental, and well-being benefits of life style, Chronica Horticulturae, Horticultural Science Focus
Catherine Jackson, 1999, Digging for sanity, Apr-99, Mental Health Care vol 2.
CC Marcus, M Barnes, 1995, Gardens in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Theraputic Benefits and Design Reccomendations,, University of California Berkeley
Cecily Maller, Mardie Townsend, Anita Pryor, 2005, Healthy nature healthy people , Deakin University, Australia, December 2005 , Oxford University Press
Christopher Leck, 2011, Early findings, To: Ineson Antonia re: research, e-mail to NHS Lothian
Clair Hickman, 2005, Therapeutic gardens: an overview of the history of hospital gardens, Seminar: Cultural landscapes in the 21st century, Bristol University
Claire Carter, 2010, Case Study: Wellesbourne Allotment, Final pdf,
Colette Bond, 2012, Food Growing in Schools Report,,
Colin Stirling, 2011, Horticulture Therapy,, 4 pdf files
Cooke, Friedl, 2010, Mental well-being checklist, Internet,
D. A. McLaughlin , Social and Therapeutic Horticulture
DANNY DAY and BOB HAWKINS, 2007, Getting Back to the Garden,, American Institute of Biological Sciences
David A. McLaghlin, Social and Therapeutic Horticulture , Scottish Agricultural College
David Malakoff, 2002, What good is community greening,, American Community Gardening Association
Deborah Smith, 2007, Horticultural therapy: The garden benefits everyone, Journal of Psychological Nursing and Mental Health Services, Internet
Deni Brown, Herbal: The Essential Guide to Herbs for Living,,+Sue.&ots=JbcXK9WhQs&sig=ePZJ6H7Oeh2fzizPU5BgofKB7iQ#v=onepage&q=Minter%2C%20Sue.&f=false
Di Blackmore, 2010, Phd record of first meeting , Office of R Jepson, Stirling University
Di Blackmore, 2011, Edinburgh symposium, University of Edinburgh
Di Blackmore, 2011, Record of meeting between PhD…, Trellis Perth
Di Blackmore , 2011, Exploring the health effects of horticulture and gardens on general and vulnerable populations, PhD Progress Report
Diane Relf, Horticulture a Therapeutic Tool, Journal of Rehabilitation
Diane Relf and Sheri Dorn, 2002, Horticulture: Meeting the needs of Special Populations,, Internet
Dianne Anderson, 2009, Grow to Care, Askham Bryan College, York, The Horticulturist
Dr Joe Sempick, Growing Together research progress report, Loughborough University, Growth Point
Dr M Kneafsey, P Turvil , 2012, Food growing project a boost for health and a sense of community, Garden Organic,
Dr. Jo Thompson-Coon, M. Deplege, 2011, Outdoor exercise healthier than gym workouts ,, Internet
Dr. M Townsend, M Ebden, 2006, Feel Blue Touch Green, Deakin University
Dr. R Garside, 2014, Gardens Crucial for dementia, American Medical Directors Association, University of Exeter
Dr. Rupert Hough, 2009, Health risks and benefits associated with soil,
Dr. Russell Jones; Dr. Pete Seaman; Dr.Anne Ellaway; Ruth Kendall , 2008, Facilities and Barriers to the use of Urban Greenspace, Glasgow, Glasgow Center for Population Health
Dr. William Bird, 2004, Can greenspace and biodiversity increase levels of physical activity, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK
Emma Cowing, 2009, Growing peace, The Scotsman
Federation of City Funds and Community Gardens, 2008, The true value of community farms and gardens, Head Office, Bristol,
Gaby Hinsliff, 2007, Government seeks secret of keeping us all happy, The Observer, New Directions for Environment and Health, Scottish Executive, Chief Medical Office
Giorgio Gianquinto, 2009, , University of Bologna, Conference, Internet
Graham Hopkins, 2003, Health blossoms in the garden,, The Risk Factor
Greenspace, 2008, Effects of greenspace on health and wellbeing: summary 2.7, Stirling, Greenspace Scotland
Greenspace, 2008, Social and community values of greenspace: summary 3.8, Stirling, Greenspace Scotland
Gwen at Knoydart Powerdown project, Carbon measures,,
H Frumkin, 2001, Beyond Toxicity Human Health and the Natural Environment, Elsevier Science Inc, American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Hayley Young, 2009, Gardening with Children and Young,, RHS
Helen Puttick, 2009, 1 in 10 taking drugs to fight depression, The Herald Scotland
Hilary, 2007, ‘A Lively Edge: People, Nature and Therapeutic Design’,, St Michael’s College, Llandaff, Cardiff, CF5 2YJ
Hilda Dooley, 2009, A review of horticultural therapy provision in Edinburgh, References, Horticulture with Plantsmanship
Hilda Dooley, 2009, A review of hortucultural therapy provision in Edinburgh, The Scottish Agricultural College, The University of Glasgow
Ian Benison, Learning to succeed: horticultural projects for Mental Health, West Nottinghamshire College,
Ian Rickman, 1997, Therapy - A Clients Perspective, Reading, Thrive Trunkwell Garden Project
Ingrid Soderback, Marianne Soderstrom, Elisabeth Schalader, 2004, The healing garden in rehabilitation clinic, Sweden, Danderyd Hospital Rehabilitation Clinic, Sweden, Pediatric Rehabilitation
Internet AOL Lifesyle, 2007, Dirt could help combat depression, Internet, No Plants No Planet, Word File,
J Duncan, H Lewis, D Graham, 2012, Spaces Conference Report, Web pdf., Redhall Walled Garden, Edinburgh
J Maas , S.E.vanDillen et al., 2008, Social contacts as a possible mechanism,, Elsevier
J Mollison, J Wilkinson P Wright, 2011, Recipe for Success Scotland National food and Drink Policy , Grow Your Own Working Group
J. Pretty, M.Griffin, M. Peacock, 2005, Evidence of the links between nature and health
Jacqueline Atkinson, 2009, An evaluation of the gardening leave, Glasgow University, The Pears Foundation
Jane Elliott, 2009, Growing better mental health, BBC News, Internet
Jane Stoneham, 2004, Why is Horticulture a good medium for people who work with people with special needs ,, Internet
Jenny Fyall, 2010, Hospital to create woodland haven to aid patient's recovery, The Scotsman newspaper
Jepson, R Robertson, L Doi, 2010, Audit of Exercise Referral, NHS Scotland
Jessie Roberts, 2013, Plenty for Everyone:, PDF File, RBGE and SRUC, 2002, Thirteen years of Thrive, Reading, Growth Point
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Ph.D, Nonpharmacologic Interventions…, American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Jo Barton and Jules Pretty, 2010, What is the Best Dose of Nature and Green Exercise for Improving Mental Health, University of Essex,
Jo Barton, Jules Pretty, 2010, What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health, Centre for environment and society, University of Essex, American Chemical Society
Joe Sempik, Jo Aldridge and Louise Finnis (Thrive), 2004, Social and Therapeutic Horticulture: the state of practice in the UK, Loughborough University - Centre for Child and Family Research
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Jolanda Mass; Robert A Verheij; Peter P Groenewegen; Sjerp de Vries; Peter Spreeuwenberg, Green Space, urbanity and health:how strong is the relation?, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research
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K. Yamane, M. Kawashima, N. Fujishige, M. Yoshida, 2004, Effects of Interior Horticultural Activities with Potted Plants on Human Physiological and Emotional Status,, International Society for Horticultural Science
K.C. Son, J.E. Song, S.J. Um, J.S. Lee, H.R. Kwack, 2004, Effects of Visual Recognition of Green Plants on the Changes of EEG in Patients with Schizophrenia ,, International Society for Horticultural Science
Ki-Cheol Son, Sin-Ae Park, Kwan-Suk Lee, 2011, Determining Exercise Intensities of Gardening Tasks as a Physical Activity Using Metabolic Equivilents in Older Adults,,
M Syrotinski, C Jones, J Middleton, 2010, Healing places sick spaces: AHRC/SFC , Post workshop discussion, AHRC/SFC
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Mark B. Detweiler, Taral Sharma, Joanna G. Detweiler et al., 2012, What is the evidence to support the use of Therapeutic Gardens for the elderley, Psychiatry Investigation, Internet
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Latest Research

  • Social and Therapeutic Horticulture as a Palliative Care Intervention

    Elisabeth Pilgrem
    BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care Journal: Online First


    Abstract Objectives Social and therapeutic horticulture (STH) is little known in palliative care. This evaluation sets out to explore the effectiveness of STH in relieving distress, managing symptoms and supporting people with advanced and terminal illness to live well throughout each stage of the disease trajectory. Methods STH was provided for 218 patients in an indoor hospice setting during a 2-year period (April 2018 to March 2020). Nature-based interventions, such as potting up plants, floristry and creating miniature gardens, were adapted for all participants to create a nature connection experience while indoors. The Distress Thermometer (DT) was used to measure perceived distress before and after each session, and patients’ reports of their subjective experience were recorded verbatim. Results Results showed a statistically significant reduction in DT scores of between 54% and 60%. Patients also self-reported an improvement in quality of life and well-being and in management of symptoms including a reduction in pain. Conclusions This evaluation shows that STH is effective in relieving distress in palliative care and may be considered a valued therapeutic intervention. The findings can inform planning within hospices and palliative care settings to enhance the care of patients and their family members.

  • Elizabeth R. Messer Diehl
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Leisure Time Activities in the Elderly: Are All Pastimes the Same?

    Marina De Rui, Elena Debora Toffanello, Nicola Veronese, Sabina Zambon, Francesco Bolzetta, Leonardo Sartori, Estella Musacchio, Maria Chiara Corti, Giovannella Baggio, Gaetano Crepaldi, Egle Perissinotto, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi
    PLOS ONE |
    April 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 4 | e94805


    Abstract Background: Optimal vitamin D status is important for overall health and well-being, particularly in the elderly. Although vitamin D synthesis in the skin declines with age, exposure to sunlight still seems to help older-aged adults to achieve adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. Elderly people would therefore benefit from outdoor leisure activities, but the effects of different types of pastime on serum 25OHD levels have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Aims: To assess the association of different pastimes with 25OHD deficiency in elderly subjects. Methods: A sample of 2,349 community-dwelling elderly individuals (1,389 females and 960 males) enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani was analyzed. Brisk walking, cycling, gardening and fishing were classed as outdoor activities, and dancing and gym workouts as indoor pastimes. Any activities undertaken for at least 1 hour/week during the previous month were considered as being practiced regularly. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between different pastimes and 25OHD deficiency. Results: Serum 25OHD levels were significantly higher in individuals who engaged in outdoor pastimes (+25% in women, + 27.7% in men) compared to those who did not. In particular, subjects regularly practicing gardening or cycling had higher serum 25OHD levels than those who did not, whereas 25OHD levels differed little between subjects who did or did not undertake indoor activities. Among the outdoor pastimes considered, logistic regression analysis confirmed a lower likelihood of vitamin D deficiency (25OHD,50 nmol/L) for cyclists (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37–0.69 in women; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29–0.87 in men) and gardeners (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47–0.83 in women; OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.80), but not for brisk walkers. Conclusions: Regular cycling and gardening reduce the likelihood of inadequate vitamin D status in Caucasian elderly people, irrespective of their age, BMI and comorbidities, and of the season of the year.

  • Is gardening associated with greater happiness of urban residents? A multiactivity, dynamic assessment in the Twin-Cities region, USA

    Graham Ambrosea,, Kirti Dasb,, Yingling Fanb,, Yingling Fanb,
    Volume 198, June 2020, 103776


    As cities seek to become more livable and environment-friendly, activities like bicycling, walking, and urban gardening (household and community-gardening) are receiving much attention. However, few field studies have measured well-being of urban gardening, particularly during household gardening. Our study develops protocols to measure emotional well-being (EWB) reported during household gardening, comparing it with other leisure and day-to-day activities. We also explore how gardening EWB varies across gardener type (vegetable vs ornamental), demographics, neighborhood type, and companionship during gardening. Using a recently developed app-based Day Reconstruction Method, EWB was measured across 370 participants in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Area, USA, wherein 118 (32%) reported engaging in household gardening. Innovatively, five measures of EWB were computed for each participant for each activity type: average net affect, average happiness, average meaningfulness, the frequency of experiencing peak positive emotions (happiness and meaningfulness). Among all three average EWB measures, gardening is among the top 5 out of 15 activities assessed, and, is not statistically different from biking, walking and eating out. All four of these activities fall behind other leisure/recreation activities, which ranks first. For frequency of experiencing peak happiness, only other leisure/recreation activities were statistically higher than all the remaining (14) activities. Average net affect of gardening was significantly higher for vegetable gardeners (vs ornamental), for low-income gardeners (vs higher income) and for women. Companionship while gardening at home, race/ethnicity and urban versus suburban location showed no significant difference. Livability and equity considerations based on these EWB findings, and their impacts on urban food plans, are discussed.

  • What is the evidence for the impact of gardens and gardening on health and well-being: a scoping review and evidence-based logic model to guide healthcare strategy decision making on the use of gardening approaches as a social prescription

    Michelle Howarth, Alison Brettle, Michael Hardman , Michelle Maden
    BMJ Open


    Abstract Objective To systematically identify and describe studies that have evaluated the impact of gardens and gardening on health and well-being. A secondary objective was to use this evidence to build evidence-based logic models to guide health strategy decision making about gardens and gardening as a non-medical, social prescription. Design Scoping review of the impact of gardens and gardening on health and well-being. Gardens include private spaces and those open to the public or part of hospitals, care homes, hospices or third sector organisations. Data sources A range of biomedical and health management journals was searched including Medline, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Knowledge, ASSIA, Cochrane, Joanna Briggs, Greenfile, Environment Complete and a number of indicative websites were searched to locate context-specific data and grey literature. We searched from 1990 to November 2019. Eligibility criteria We included research studies (including systematic reviews) that assessed the effect, value or impact of any garden that met the gardening definition. Data extraction and synthesis Three reviewers jointly screened 50 records by titles and abstracts to ensure calibration. Each record title was screened independently by 2 out of 3 members of the project team and each abstract was screened by 1 member of a team of 3. Random checks on abstract and full-text screening were conducted by a fourth member of the team and any discrepancies were resolved through double-checking and discussion. Results From the 8896 papers located, a total of 77* studies was included. Over 35 validated health, well-being and functional biometric outcome measures were reported. Interventions ranged from viewing gardens, taking part in gardening or undertaking therapeutic activities. The findings demonstrated links between gardens and improved mental well-being, increased physical activity and a reduction in social isolation enabling the development of 2 logic models. Conclusions Gardens and gardening can improve the health and well-being for people with a range of health and social needs. The benefits of gardens and gardening could be used as a ‘social prescription’ globally, for people with long-term conditions (LTCs). Our logic models provide an evidence-based illustration that can guide health strategy decision making about the referral of people with LTCs to socially prescribed, non-medical interventions involving gardens and gardening.